Monday, January 27, 2020

Challenges Walmart Faces Expanding Their Territory To China Management Essay

Challenges Walmart Faces Expanding Their Territory To China Management Essay Business operations across national borders are becoming the trend in the current era. And this trend continuously grows because of globalisation and multinational operation. In response to this globalisation issue, multinational corporations like Wal-Mart tend operate in other countries to have excellent advantage. According to Amponsah (2001) globalisation and the eagerness of a certain business organisation to operate across borders involves two dimension i.e. change in economic operations of various countries, and change in the participants of global economic operations. Several people believe that the globalisation of economic activities of every country would hasten the fight against poverty (Macarov 2003, p. 103). But like other companies that are operating in local scale, Wal-Mart a multinational company also faces different opportunities and challenges in the foreign market. With this, this paper will be discussing the opportunities and challenges that Wal-Mart faces in venturing the Chinese territory. Opportunities A business venturing to a foreign market creates good opportunities. As for Wal-Mart venturing in China, a new foreign market like China might provide opportunities for new growth. Aside from this, Wal-Mart uses global expansion to lower costs of goods, accelerate speed to market, improve quality of products and of course to cut their overhead costs considering that China is a low cost country whereas the labour is cheap compared to other countries in the West (Walmartstores, 2010). Most MNCs are establishing subsidiaries in other nations to reduce costs, mainly through the use of cheap foreign labour in developing countries. Like other MNCs, Wal-Mart can hold down costs by shifting some or all of its production facilities abroad. Although Wal-Mart are not claiming that they using the opportunity of global expansion to escape the protectionist policies of an importing country, it is remains the motives of most MNCs. Through direct foreign investment, a corporation like Wal-Mart can b ypass high tariffs that prevent its goods from being competitively priced. For example, when the European Common Market (the predecessor of the European Union) placed tariffs on goods produced by outsiders, U.S. corporations responded by setting up European subsidiaries (Multinational Corporation 1998). Venturing in China is also a good opportunity for Wal-Mart to prevent competition. The most certain method of preventing actual or potential competition from foreign businesses is to acquire those businesses ((Multinational Corporation 1998). Despite of the opportunistic feat of global expansion, Wal-Mart holds that they create employment, create wealth, and improve technology in countries that are in dire need of such development. Critics, however, point to their inordinate political influence, their exploitation of developing nations, and the loss of jobs that result in the corporations home countries. Challenges Cultures Maddox (1993) claims that going global require transformation of managerial skills learned at the home office to enable the managers to function cross-culturally. Business firms must focus on selecting and training managers to become more attuned to different cultures, particularly in the culture of their country of assignment. In the case of Wal-Mart, their Board of Directors should have identified economy, politics, religion, value systems, and frame of reference of the Chinese consumers regarding the products and services that they offer as the primary areas that posed distinct challenges in their expansion to China. Thus, the same aspects merit the attention of the leaders of Wal-Mart who will be assigned at the companys branch in China. The Chinese culture and lifestyle are different from those of the Wal-Marts home country i.e. USA and other Western nations where the company operates. Thus, the success of operation in China relies on the ability of the leaders to facilitate bus iness operations in the midst of cultural diversity among the employees and distinct cultural characteristics surrounding the company such as laws, social norms and business practices. In evaluating the culture of China as part of Wal-Marts business operation, Hofstedes dimensions culture was used. Actually, Geert Hofstede is a Dutch organisational anthropologist who divided culture into four dimensions at culture level-power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, and uncertainty avoidance (Dahl, 2004). It is important to be aware and comprehend these cultural dimensions for these have an influence on the internal and external workings of organizations that operate on an intercultural level. Power Distance. Power distance is described as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally (cited in Hofstede 1991, p. 28); more simply, it is concerned with how equal, or unequal, the people are in a specific society or nation. In China, they have high power distance i.e. 80 PDI, this means that there is significant amount of inequalities in power and wealth within China. As a result, it is quite likely that that society employs a caste system and does not permit significant development for its people (Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions 2010). In the corporate-oriented context, firms with a high power distance employ a tall organizational structure because there is greater and higher rigidity in terms of hierarchy. Also, there is a large proportion of managerial employees to the overall human resource population, high job ranking for white-collar work, large compensation differentials, and low requirements for entry-level positions (Earley, 1997, p. 147). Individualism versus Collectivism. Individualism is how a society perceives achievement and personal relationships, may it be individually or collectively. Furthermore, according to Hofstede (1991), individualism is a set of values that concern the relationship of a person to his or her collectivity in the society (as cited in Earley, 1997, p. 144). In China, the individualism was low i.e. 20 IDV which indicates that China is a nation with low individualism and has a collective nature wherein close bonds exist among the people (Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions 2010). Moreover, collectivistic people also perceive themselves in relation a societal and cultural context. This is a great challenge for Wal-Mart considering that their mother country United States has high collectivism as can be observed through the nature of their families. People who reside in such locations live in nuclear families, as oppose to highly collective Asian individuals who normally live with members of their extended families. Masculinity versus Femininity. Masculinity versus femininity refers to the gender differentiation, or more specifically, the extent of how a society applies the traditional perception of man as a model of success, control, and authority. In nations with high masculinity, men control a major part of the society and power structure, while females are restrained because of such male supremacy (Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions 2010). In China, they have high masculinity i.e. 66 MAS. Actually this is important for Wal-marts operation since it relates to achievement, industrial strife, high growth, aggression, work stress, and conflict. To be more specific, firms that are more masculine are fast-paced, aggressive, and focus more on development and growth over harmony and stability (Earley, 1997, p. 164). On the other hand, a feminine-oriented company is more concerned on the social interaction and operations among human resources. Moreover, such firm has a considerate and nurturing natur e, which means that there is more focus on interpersonal functioning and harmony over personal gain (Earley, 1997, p. 164). Hence, the employees welfare is the foremost concern, because this results to the companys ability to establish the capability of an individual to contribute to interpersonal welfare in the organization. Uncertainty Avoidance. As was defined by Hofstede, uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations (cited in Hofstede 1991, p. 113). As seen in the index, China has low uncertainty avoidance which indicates that the country was less rigid when it comes to change, could handle risks, and have less rules and regulations, since they could effectively endure diverse opinions (Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions 2010). For Wal-Mart, uncertainty may come from the internal and external environment. An organizations response to such ambiguities, through the use of rules, rituals, and technology, affects its image of high or low uncertainty avoidance. This could be a great challenge for Wal-Mart since China wont easily embrace the change they would bring in the country. A Fifth Cultural Dimension. After additional studies which were mainly focused on Chinese managers and workers, Hofstede introduced a fifth cultural dimension, which is the long-term orientation. This focuses on how nations apply, or do not apply, long-term devotion to conventional, forward thinking principles (Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions 2010). Countries with high levels of long-term orientation recommend a strong work ethics and anticipate long-term rewards as a consequence of todays hard work. Thus, long-term commitments are emphasized and traditions are respected (Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions 2010). This is a great challenge for Wal-Mart since they came from countries with low levels of long-term orientation that are capable to experience change because long-term customs and behaviours are lessened, and change is no longer hindered. Political The primary difference in the economies of West and China is the orientation. Most of the west countries economy is affluent while the Chinese economy adopts the economic style of Soviet Union wherein most of the economic activities are centrally planned by the government. In China, the local officials have immense authority although the economy is open to foreign investment and trade. The regulations state that Chinese firms should have at least 51 percent ownership and control of joint ventures with foreign investors (Economy of China 2010). Ramsay (2003) reports that it generally takes two to three months to register a business in China with the government putting limits on the companys business scope (p. 8). The difference in the economic orientation of China and Wal-Marts home country USA poses certain challenges to the leaders of said company. These leaders are accustomed to a free market in the USA economy wherein investors, consumers and producers transact free business and d etermine the flow of economic activities. In China, they would encounter restrictions in the various operational activities of the company such as production and marketing of certain types of products because the Chinese government pursues the interests of Chinese business organizations. Secondly, Chinas transitional economy as cited by Alon Shenker (2003) since the mid-1970s has fostered a tremendous opportunity for international firms to establish operations in the country and made international joint venture as a primary mode of foreign direct investment. However, managing joint ventures sometimes leads to cultural conflicts between Chinese managers and foreign managers. Wal-Marts leaders are more Western and their approaches to management clash with the Chinese management approach. Chinese managers rely on interventions from the extended network outside the company to manage risks and threats rather than following the budgets and plans established in advance that are expected t o guarantee success. The Chinese managers prefer particularistic and pragmatic solutions to organizational problems by analyzing causes of problems and soliciting outside intervention in problem solving while Western managers like Wal-Marts managers have the tendency to act in reference to a belief in an underlying principle that provides a ready matrix into which current reality and present existence can be fitted. As an American, Wal-Marts managers believe that future circumstances can be integrated into the ready matrix which serves as an analytic model to guide decision making processes (p. 147). Considering these differences, the Western leaders who will be assigned to China may encounter conflicting management styles with their Chinese colleagues. Thirdly, USA and China differ in religious beliefs. USA follow Christianity, especially Protestantism, and believe that good works are gifts of hardwork and Gods grace in the life of His believer and not by interventions of outside f orces (Christianity-Protestantism 2010). Chinese are more fatalistic and believe that humans must follow their destiny by living in unity with the world of nature and pursuing social conformity (Religion in China 2001). Hence, Western employees would perform their duties based on their personal judgments and decisions while their Chinese counterparts would consistently attempt to abide by the rules and seek opinions of other employees as they are more inclined to seek conformity. These differences in idea of independence would make the leaders of Wal-Mart consider the outcomes and motivations of their manpower. Western employees would be motivated to perform well if they are given sufficient freedom at work while Chinese employees may prefer to work in teams and have access to constant supervision. Fourthly, the Western value systems relative to interpersonal relationships are in conflict with those of the Chinese. Western people as cited by Alon Shenker (2003) value personal relat ionships with colleagues and supervisors but organizational hierarchy does not dictate their relationships. They equally communicate and relate to all members of the organization. Chinese employees, on the contrary, prefer a system in which coordination is hierarchical wherein the key institutional values underscore loyalty and submission to a leader whose right is to establish the goals of the group. Accordingly, the leaders of Wal-Mart who would be assigned to manage some operations of China have to practice special care in dealing with their Chinese subordinates and fellow supervisors. They may encounter Chinese colleagues who would constantly consult them before they perform their responsibilities. These leaders have to recognize that the Chinese culture places much reverence to leaders while Western people prefer to work independently most of the times. Conclusion The best way to measure success in international business is through constant monitoring by the mother company. Through monitoring, the head company can gauge expatriate failure or success, and cross-cultural competence of expatriates. Wal-Mart must be able to implement consistent monitoring measures in their operations and the performances of the employees and managers sent to China. Venture failure is oftentimes associated with lost opportunities, reduced productivity, and damaged relationships while expatriate success connotes the accomplishment of the opposite. Furthermore, cultural competence is measured if the manager assigned at a foreign location possesses a strong personal identity, has knowledge of and complies with the beliefs and values of the culture of the country where he is assigned, demonstrates sensitivity to the affective processes of the culture, communicates clearly in the language of the country of assignment, displays a degree of culturally-sanctioned behavior, nurtures active social relations with the people and authorities of the country, and negotiates the institutional structures of that culture. Basically, the leaders should be able to adapt quickly to the Chinese culture, comply with its requirements while performing their responsibilities, and gain appreciation of the unique processes of doing business in the country.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Henry David Thoreau Was a Fool :: Henry David Thoreau Essays

Lincoln has been credited as being a person that fought for equality between races, when he himself believed that African Americans were inferior, the image people give him is unreal, propaganda by the Radical Republicans in the reconstruction era. Many people have ideas that do not hold up when put to the test, or even their own reasoning. Henry David Thoreau’s ideas and ideals do not hold up when compared to reality. Thoreau believed that if a man did less work, the better it would be for the man and his community. He set out to accomplish this task, and accomplished not working, but failed to prove his point. He died at age forty-five, younger then most people in his time, and although he did benefit his community, doing little labor only shortened his life, and proved no better for the community. Not only does reality disprove Thoreau’s theology, but his own words contradict him. He proclaimed â€Å"the government that governs least is the best,† (Civil Disobedience pg. 222 paragraph 1) and then says that, â€Å"We have had to agree on a certain set of rules†¦ to make this frequent meeting tolerable†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Solitude pg. 95 paragraph 3). His contradiction is evident, what is government but on how the people conduct their meetings, lacking the laws of the government, the society would collapse. He also criticizes the government for not being virtuous (Ponds pg. 119 last paragraph). The American government is controlled by the people, if he wants a government that is virtuous, he should either get elected, or try to get the non-virtuous people out of office. Further, politicians who made their name elsewhere have said things to the effect of, â€Å"either you already have a name for yourself, or somewhere along the line you sell your soul†¦Ã¢â‚¬  essentially saying that virtue and politics don’t work together. Thoreau further shows how he cannot support his own ideas when he says that he spent two years â€Å"alone, in the woods,†(Economy pg. 7, 1st sentence). He did not spend two years â€Å"alone† and a great period of the time which he was there was not â€Å"in the woods.† In fact, he had as many as thirty guests at a time (Visitors pg. 97 last line). He tries to show how he had few visitors in the winter saying, â€Å"†¦no visitor ventured near my house for a week or a fortnight at a time,† (Winter Visitors pg. Henry David Thoreau Was a Fool :: Henry David Thoreau Essays Lincoln has been credited as being a person that fought for equality between races, when he himself believed that African Americans were inferior, the image people give him is unreal, propaganda by the Radical Republicans in the reconstruction era. Many people have ideas that do not hold up when put to the test, or even their own reasoning. Henry David Thoreau’s ideas and ideals do not hold up when compared to reality. Thoreau believed that if a man did less work, the better it would be for the man and his community. He set out to accomplish this task, and accomplished not working, but failed to prove his point. He died at age forty-five, younger then most people in his time, and although he did benefit his community, doing little labor only shortened his life, and proved no better for the community. Not only does reality disprove Thoreau’s theology, but his own words contradict him. He proclaimed â€Å"the government that governs least is the best,† (Civil Disobedience pg. 222 paragraph 1) and then says that, â€Å"We have had to agree on a certain set of rules†¦ to make this frequent meeting tolerable†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Solitude pg. 95 paragraph 3). His contradiction is evident, what is government but on how the people conduct their meetings, lacking the laws of the government, the society would collapse. He also criticizes the government for not being virtuous (Ponds pg. 119 last paragraph). The American government is controlled by the people, if he wants a government that is virtuous, he should either get elected, or try to get the non-virtuous people out of office. Further, politicians who made their name elsewhere have said things to the effect of, â€Å"either you already have a name for yourself, or somewhere along the line you sell your soul†¦Ã¢â‚¬  essentially saying that virtue and politics don’t work together. Thoreau further shows how he cannot support his own ideas when he says that he spent two years â€Å"alone, in the woods,†(Economy pg. 7, 1st sentence). He did not spend two years â€Å"alone† and a great period of the time which he was there was not â€Å"in the woods.† In fact, he had as many as thirty guests at a time (Visitors pg. 97 last line). He tries to show how he had few visitors in the winter saying, â€Å"†¦no visitor ventured near my house for a week or a fortnight at a time,† (Winter Visitors pg.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Book design, visual analysis on “The Art of Looking Sideways”

The above quote was used by The Daily Telegraph to describe Alan Gerard Fletcher on his obituary. Fletcher was a well-known British graphic designer who was awarded the Prince Philip Prize for Designer of the Year, and was elected the President of the Designers and Art Directors Association in 1973 and was also elected as the International President of the Alliance Graphique Internationale from 1982 to 1985.He wrote a number of books, but his master piece, which was written on the topic of graphic designing and visual thinking and took him nearly 18 years to finish is the book under consideration known as â€Å"The Art of Looking Sideways†.In the words of the reviewers at the Library Journal, â€Å"this book will delight anyone who enjoys unexpected visual and verbal play, cultural and historical observations and insights, and staggering amounts of trivia and anecdotes† (The Art of Looking Sideways by Alan Fletcher, p.1).The book is very extra ordinary and one of its ki nd, and the author has succeeded in presenting a nearly beyond description mixture of tales, citations, illustrations, and strange realities that presents the reader with an astonishingly warped visualization of the pandemonium of modern life (Alan Fletcher, p.1).Book Design and Visual Analysisâ€Å"Graphic designers (presumably with the support of publishers) seem to have embraced the principle that size matters. First there was Life Style, Bruce Mau's cinder-block-size illustrated meditation/portfolio. And now, at more than a thousand pages and weighing in at slightly less than a large infant, we have Alan Fletcher's The Art of Looking Sideways†.The book is based on about seventy two chapters, which have titles like Culture, Improvisation, Colour, Ideas and the likes. Comprised of nearly more than a thousand, the book is a brilliant treatise on visual thinking, one that exemplifies the sense of play and the extended frame of reference of the designer.A number of designers a s well students of design usually go through the pages of this book in order to grasp ideas, while others go through the book in order to enjoy the gently challenging mind-teasers the book has to offer.Putting together the most determined of sets for his work, aligned with a background encircling art, drawing and literature from pre-history to the current day, Fletcher has put forward a persuasive case for the role that graphic designs play in the course of civilization.The book is very visual. It has more illustrations than text. According to sources, â€Å"Sideways isn't so much a book you read; rather, it's an experience you savor over time. If it were a bottle of wine, you'd want to sip it gradually, over a period of years. Gulping is completely out of the question.On every page, you'll find a juicy little nugget† (Buchsbaum, p.1). The design of the book is rather very creative. With every turn of the page there is something new present there waiting for you to go through . The Art can easily amuse and enthuse all of the people who like the interaction amid word and image, and also those who appreciate the odd and the unpredicted.The book is nothing to read, but it can rather be taken as a visual experience by the reader, where a new image, with a new twist is waiting for the reader. The front and the back cover of the book can be taken into consideration to understand what to expect inside the book, but even that might not be much help.Through the visuals, the author or lets say the designer has put forward some pieces of information, which we would in general consider useless and ignore.All of the visuals and the illustrations that have been presented by the author barely have any connection with each other. Even on opposite pages, the reader would find pictures that are completely opposite each other.For example, presented on page number 162, is a picture of a water color of flowers along with a short note about The Academia in Venice and the art that are exhibited in its galleries and right next to it on the opposite page paragraph by Philip Roth, which also has quotes from Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Wilde, Paul Auster, Napoleon Bonaparte and many others, as well as a concise description of the word â€Å"mopery† intermingled within it.Now both of these pictures have no relation what so ever amongst themselves, which shows the broad horizon of the images that the author had. The pictures can be said to be very random and are very stimulating, which would challenge the viewer into seeing and thinking from a completely different perception, which is sideways.The design of the book consists of all kinds of visual stimuli, which makes the viewer look at ordinary everyday things with a completely new perception. In the words of the author of the book, â€Å"I am intrigued by apparently useless information, such as 8% of the population is left-handed; giraffes only sleep five minutes every 24 hours; Italians kiss twice, the S wiss three times; is a zebra a white animal with black stripes or vice versa; and, are you left or right eyed?This book is everything I was never taught at school. It has no thesis, is neither a whodunit nor a how-to-do-it, and has no beginning, middle or end. It is a book for visually curious people, full of things to make you think twice† (The Creative Life, p.1).

Friday, January 3, 2020

Abortion And Its Effects On Society - 1822 Words

Abortion in Society The modern world today is brought together by many different cultures, beliefs, thoughts, opinions and morals. Which makes life difficult at times and causes people to not get along when differences can not be set aside. There are many issues and topics that are the root of these problems, which may never be solved and more than likely will never be solved based on characteristics of cultures and beliefs. Abortion is a very diverse topic in today’s society for which there may never be a correct answer to live up to everyone’s morals, but both sides present persuasive facts and opinions to justify their beliefs. Recent data found in a Pew Research Center Poll shows the support for abortion is as high as it has been†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"In the United Kingdom provocative images of the fetus generated by four dimensional ultrasonography have fuelled a reassessment of fetal capabilities along with suggestions that the fetus can respond both emotionally and cognitively. Subsequent political and media discussion in the United Kingdom has debated changing abortion laws and procedures to mitigate against fetal pain (DerbyShire).† This could impact the choices of many tremendously, if society would ever talk about abortion in a civilized manner even though it is very hard to discuss, many lives could be saved. A lot of people believe that more than half of abortions are because of teens. Whether they are too immature or they are not using contraceptives. Although sometimes that is true, although most abortions are not because of teen pregnancies. According to Jeff Jones, minors accounted for only about forty percent of abortions and these happened without their parents or guardians ever knowing. Point three percent of abortions in 2013 were by fifteen year olds and younger (Jones). While teens are a very small portion of abortions adults are the vast majority. Unmarried women in 2013 held responsible for 85.2% of all abortions (Jones). Which could argue that they are the ones being more irresponsible than minors. Then twenty-fiver perfect of abortions were because the mothers â€Å"were not ready for a child (Jones).† Which makes adults sound more immature becauseShow MoreRelatedAbortion And Its Effect On Society1272 Words   |  6 PagesIn society today, abortion takes pl ace on a daily basis. Abortions have been a subject of medical, lawful, religious, and moral intrigue for a long time. As a legislative issue in the United States, abortion has been acknowledged and subsequently managed for many years. In the mid 1800s, every state that had developed at the time had also created some form of abortion law. To this day, 60% of abortion laws we face today were enacted in that period (Hardin, 1969). However, even before these restrictiveRead MoreThe Effects Of Abortion On The Society s Future Essay1173 Words   |  5 Pages(Student’s Name) (Instructor’s Name) (Unit) (Date) Introduction Induced Abortion has been a controversial issue of debate for years. The position of people concerning the ethical, philosophical and legal issues surrounding abortion usually relates to their value system (Bailey). Opinions about abortion are termed as a combination of views about abortion s morality and the opinions about the extent of governmental authority regarding public policy. It also involves the opinions concerning the rightsRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal Or Illegal?939 Words   |  4 Pagestoday’s society; however, one of the more heated issues is abortion. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

Teamwork at Wendys Total Quality Management or a Failure...

Teamwork at Wendys: Total Quality Management or a Failure to Apply Appropriate Learning? Introduction There are many complications when it comes to running a large franchise corporation above and beyond the considerations for a more standard multinational with cohesive sales and operations units. Franchise operators are at once clients, customers, and operational parts of the business, and achieving effective and efficient cash flow and operational integration with the complexities of this relationship can be quite difficult, as can ensuring that quality is maintained at the base level of sales and operations. Teamwork has been identified as an essential aspect of achieving Total Quality Management, but it is not clear that the research and recommendations in this area have been recognized or implemented by even well-established and fairly successful companies (Gazzoli et al, 2010). The following pages will examine teamwork and total quality management efforts at Wendys/Arbys Group, such as they exist and are observable, in light of current research on the topic in the i ndustry as a whole and as a part of organizational theory. Company Overview Wendys/Arbys Group was formed in its current incarnation in 2008, when Wendys completed a stock buyout of Triarc, the parent company of the Arbys franchise chain (Wendys/Arbys Group, 2011). The purchase of Triarc(Arbys) was primarily intended as a means of generating short-term profit for Wendys by turning aroundShow MoreRelatedProducing sustainable competitive advantage Essay8688 Words   |  35 Pagesà ® ½ Academy of Management Executive, 2005, Vol. 19, No. 4 Reprinted from 1995, Vol. 9, No. 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The American Revolution and Indias Independence Movement...

Systems of governance and authority can have a profound influence on the development of human societies. For example, the major influence of the British Empire in the development of Indian and American human societies. All types of governments – from local politics to federal bureaucracies to huge empires – maintain their authority through specific techniques, including fostering a shared identity (nationalism), developing economic interdependence, and sometimes using overt force. Challenges to that authority through violent and nonviolent revolution can have significant consequences, including the collapse and replacement of whole systems of governance. Both the American Revolution and the Indian Independence Movement gained their†¦show more content†¦Unfortunately, the Indian Rebellion did not result in freedom for India. Eventually, the British government had taken control over India when sepoys brought down the East India Company, and established the B ritish Raj. The British Raj was the British direct rule, and influence in India between 1858 and 1947. The American Revolution was also a rebellion against the British Empire. A violent revolution led by George Washington, and which took place between 1765 and 1783. British colonists in America rebelled to regain freedom and become the independent country, United States. There were a number of events that were the causes of the American Revolution. The First cause which contributed to the American Revolution was the debt gained from the French and Indian War was a contributing factor to the American Revolution. The British government decided to make the American colonies pay a large share of the war debt, by imposing harsh taxes. Some of these taxes were the Sugar Act, Currency Act, Quartering Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, and a number of other taxes. In addition to the high taxes, there were events, such as the Boston Massacre which resulted in the loss of life. Another event that led to the American Revolution was the Boston Tea Party which was followed by the Intolerable Acts. The Boston Tea Party was a reaction to the British Empire; it was when American colonists dumped tea overboard from three shipsShow MoreRelatedtask 31185 Words   |  5 PagesThe EIC used all three to control the people of India. They instructed farmers what crops to grow and taxed the food crops, they formed and army using the native people, exploited the labor market, used Indian raw materials to fuel the industrial revolution, they even replaced Persian with English as the national language used in school and government (Luscombe, 2012). The EIC made a significant profit for itself and Britain. However as they continued to exploit the indigenous people of India, theyRead MoreEssay on GKE Task 3 Themes In US And World History A789 Words   |  4 PagesPuritans settled close together to form a tight knit communities that housed the people, the church and the government. He believed this was the best way for the settlers to protect themselves from enemies and worship as God intended. The Native Americans of the Pequot Tribe who resided in the Massachusetts Bay area did not welcome the expansion of the Puritan’s settlements into the Conneticut River Valley. The Pequot Tribe resisted the expansion and were annihilated by the Puritans. The remainderRead MoreThe Role Of Modern Nationalism And The Middle East1639 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay I will be discussing the role of modern nationalism and how this ideology affected the transition from colonial rule to independence in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, as well as the problems that plagued them since 1945, and how these different nations have solved them. I will be specifically concentrating on the nations of India, Algeria, and Iran. In the wake of World War Two, the power of Asian nationalism was irrepressible. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Effects of Rap Music on Crime free essay sample

Cultures of Crime, Cultures of Resistance Julian Tanner, university of Toronto Mark Gabriele, Dalhousie University Scot Worldly, university of Toronto This research compares representations of rap music with the self-reported criminal behavior and resistant attitudes of the musics core audience. Our database is a large sample of Toronto high school students (n = 3,393) from which we identify a group of listeners, whose combination of musical likes and dislikes distinguish them as rap universe.We then examine the relationship between their cultural preference for rap music and Involvement in a culture of crime and heir perceptions of social Injustice and Inequity. We find that the rap universe, also known as urban music enthusiasts, report significantly more delinquent behavior and stronger feelings of inequity and injustice than listeners with other musical tastes. However, we also find that the nature and strengths of those relationships vary according to the racial identity of diff erent groups within urban music enthusiasts. Black and white subgroups align themselves with resistance representations while Asians do not; whites and Asians report significant Involvement In crime and delinquency, while blacks do not. Finally, we discuss our findings in light of research on media effects and audience reception, youth subcultures and post-subcultures analysis, and the sociology of cultural consumption. Thinking About Rap The emergence and spectacular growth of rap Is probably the most Important development In popular music since the rise of rock roll In the late asses.Radio airplay, music video programming and sales figures are obvious testimonies to its popularity and commercial success. This was made particularly evident in October 2003 when, according to the recording industry bible Billboard magazine, all top 10 acts in the United States were rap or hip-hop artists;l and again in 2006, when the Academy award for Best Song went to Its Hard Out Here for a Pimp, a rap song by the group Hustle Flow. Such developments may also signal raps Increasing social acceptance and cultural legalization (Bandanna 2007).However, Its reputation and status in the musical field has, hitherto, been a controversia l one. Like new music before it Jazz, rock n roll), rap has been critically reviewed as a corrosive influence on young and impressionable listeners (Best 1990; Datum 1999; Tanner 2001; Sac and Kennedy 2002; Alexander 2003). Whether rap has been reviled as much as Jazz and rock n roll once were Is a moot point; rather more certain Is Its pre-eminent role as a problematic contemporary musical genre.Direct correspondence to Julian Tanner, Department of Social Science university of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ontario;o, Canada, MIMIC IA. Telephone: (416) 287-7293. E- mail: Julian. [emailprotected] Ca. The University of North Carolina Press Social Forces 88(2) 693-722, December 2009 694 ; social Forces 88(2) how print Journalists wrote about rap and heavy metal in the asses and asses. While both are devalued genres (Roe 1995), she nevertheless contends that they are framed differently: the presumed harmful effects of heavy metal are limited to the listeners themselves, whereas rap is seen as more socially damaging (for a similar distinction, see Rose 1994). The lyrical content of the two genres is established as one source of this differential framing: rap lyrics are found to be more explicit and provocative (greater usage of hard swear words, for example) than heavy metal lyrics.The second factor involves assumptions made (by Journalists) about the racial imposition of audiences for heavy metal and rap the former believed to be white suburban youth, the latter urban black youth. According to Binder, rap invites more public concern and censorious complaint than heavy metal because of what was assumed to be its largely black fan base. At the same time, she identifies an important counter frame, one component of which elevates rap (but not heavy metal) to the statu s of an art form with serious political content. In both the mainstream press (I. E. The New York Times) and publications targeting a predominately black readership (I. . , Ebony and Jet), she finds rap lauded for the salutary lessons that it imparts to black youth regarding the realities of urban living; likewise, rap artists are applauded for their importance as role models and mentors to inner-city black youth. Thus, while rap has been framed negatively, as a contributor to an array of social problems, crime and delinquency in particular, it has also been celebrated and championed as an authentic expression of cultural resistance by underdogs against racial exploitation and disadvantage.How these differing representations of rap eight resonate with audience members was not part of Binders research mandate. 2 Furthermore, while she does acknowledge that Journalistic perceptions of the racial composition of the rap audience are not necessarily accurate that more white suburban youth, even in the asses and asses, might have been consuming the music than black inner -city youth this acknowledgment does not alter her enterprise or her argument.At this point in time, when the listening audience for rap music has both expanded and become increasingly diverse, our research concerns how young lack, white and Asian rap fans in Toronto, Canada relate to a musical form still viewed primarily in terms of its criminal and resistant meanings. Researching Rap Much of the early work on audiences preoccupied itself with investigating the harmful effects of media exposure, especially the effects of depictions of violence in movies and TV on real life criminal events.Results have generally been inconclusive, with considerable disagreement in the social science research community regarding the influence of the media on those watching the large or small screen (Curran 1990; Firebombed and Longhorns 1998; Freedman 2002; Sac and Kennedy 2002; Alexander 2003; Newman 2004; Savage 2004; Longhorns 2007). Listening to Rap ; 695 effects, although these too have proven difficult to verify. For example, in one high profile case in the asses, the heavy metal band Judas Priest was accused of producing recorded material (songs) that contained subliminal messaging that led to the suicides of two fans.This claim was not, however, legally validated because the judge hearing the case remained unconvinced about a causal linkage between the music and the self-destructive behavior of two individuals (Waller 1993). Strong arguments for the ill effects of media consumption rest on the assumption that audiences are easily and directly influenced by the media, with frequent analogies made to hypodermic syringes that inject messages into gullible and homogeneous audiences (Firebombed and Longhorns 1998; Alexander 2003; Longhorns 2007).In contesting this view of audience passivity, critics also propose that texts are open to more than one interpretation. Again, TV audiences have been studied more frequently than audiences for popular music, although research on the latter has illustrated how song lyrics are not necessarily construed the same way by adolescents and adults. Research conducted by Prisons and Rosenberg (1987) indicates that songs identified by adults as containing deviant content (references to sex, violence, alcohol and drug use, Satanism) were not similarly categorized by adolescents.Evidence that there are different ways of watching television or listening to recorded music has led to an alternative conception of audiences one more concerned with what audiences do with the media than what the media does to audiences. The development within communications research of the uses and gratifications model (McLain 1984) is one result, with TV once more the media form cost commonly investigated.Nonetheless, a few studies have documented how young people listen to popular music in order to satisfy needs for entertainment and relaxation (among other priorities), and utilize it as an accompaniment to other everyday activities, such as homework and household chores (Roe 1985; Prisons and Rosenberg 1987). More recent research has added identity construction as a need that popular music might fill for young listeners (Roe 1999; Graced 2001; Laughed 2006).One particular usage emphasized by British cultural Marxist associated with the now defunct Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies has focused attention on how active media audiences counter dominant cultural messages in their consumption of popular culture. In what has, by now, become a familiar story, a series of music-based, post-war youth cultures (Teddy Boys, Moods, Rockers, Skinheads, Punks) in the United Kingdom have been represented as symbolically resisting the dominant normative order (Hall and Jefferson 1976; Hebrides 1979).This argument has, however, relied on a reading of cultural texts and artifacts for its evidentially base, rather than observations of, or information from, subcultures participants themselves (Cohen 1980; Firth 1985; Tanner 2001; Bennett 2002; Alexander 2003). 696 ; social Forces 88(2) More recently, the utility of the term subculture for understanding young peoples collective involvements in music has been questioned.The focus of this criticism is, argue that, under conditions of post modernity, music audiences have fragmented, and young people are no longer participants in distinctive subcultures groups (Bennett Bibb; Megaton 2000). Instead of subcultures, they are now involved with neo tribes and scene s (I. E. , Bennett Bibb; Bennett and Kahn-Harris 2004; Hexagonally 2005; Longhorns 2007; Hoodwinks 2008). Post subcultures research has been much less inclined than the Birmingham era researchers to decode and decipher texts, and much more likely to engage in ethnographic studies of music and youth groups (Bennett 2002).However, while there has been occasional work on modes of (female) resistance in the teen scene (Lowe 2004) and riot girl scene (Sicily 2004), there has been no equivalent research on rap scenes and resistance. Examinations of audience receptions of rap are not numerous and have been of two main kinds: a few studies have explored how young people perceive and valuate the music, while others have studied the harmful effects of rap by trying to link consumption of the music with various negative consequences.An early study by Sahara (1992) finds rap to be more popular with black than white college students, and more popular among males than females. However, reasons for liking the music varied little by race, with both black and white audience members proportioning the bea t over the message. A more recent study by Sullivan (2003) reports few racial differences in liking the music, although black teenagers were more committed to the mere and more likely to view rap as life affirming (Berry 1994) than those from other racial backgrounds.In a small but important study conducted in California, Maharani and Connors (2003) investigated 41 black middle school students perceptions of violence and thoughts about rap music. In focus group sessions and personal interviews, informants revealed a strong liking for rap music, valuing the fact that it spoke to their everyday concerns about growing up in a poorly resourced community. They did not, however, like the way that rap music on occasion (MIS)represented the experiences of black people in the United States.They challenged the misogyny evident in some rap videos and rejected what they saw as the globalization of violence. Overall, their critical and nuanced engagement with rap music fitted poorly with depictions of media audiences as easily swayed by popular culture (Sac 2005). The search for the harmful effects of rap music has yielded no more definitive results than earlier quests for media effects. While some studies report evidence of increased violence, delinquency, substance use, and unsafe sexual activity resulting room young peoples exposure to rap music (Winning et al. 003; Chem. et al. 2006), other researchers have failed to find such a link or have exercised extreme caution when interpreting apparent links. One review of the literature, conducted in the asses, could find a total of only nine investigations all of them Listening to Rap ; 697 small-scale, none involving the general adolescent population and concluded that there was an even split between those that found some sort of an association between exposure to the music and various deviant or undesirable outcomes, and those that could find no connection at all.Moreover, in those studies where the whether or not they were observing a causal relationship, and if so, which came first, the music or the violent dispositions (Datum 1999). A more recent investigation conducted in Montreal is illustrative of such interpretative problems. While a preference for rap was found to predict deviant behavior among 348 Fricasseeing adolescents, causal ordering could not be established, nor an additional possibility ruled out: that other factors might be responsible for both the musical taste and the deviant behavior (Miranda and Class 2004).The notion that rap is or can be presented as cultural resistance the counter frame identified by Binder has become increasingly prominent in the rap literature over the past 20 years (Rose 1994; Kermis 2000; Keyes 2002; Quinn 2005). In his influential book, Why White Kids Love Hip Hop: Wants, Wiggeries, Wannabes, and the new Reality of Race in America, Kitting (2005) expounds at length on his emancipators view of raps history and development. Kitting sees hip-hop as a form of protest music, offering its listeners a message of resistance.He also makes the additional claim that the resistive appeal of hip-hop is not restricted to black youth. Indeed, as the title of his book suggests, he is particularly interested in the patronage of rap music by white youth, those young people who might be seen as the contemporary equivalents of Mailers White Negro or Keys Negro Wannabes. (Keyes 2002:250) In his view, the global diffusion of rap rests on the musics capacity for resonating with the experiences of the downtrodden and marginalia in a variety of cultural contexts.Quinn (2005) similarly explains the crossover appeal of gangs rap in the United States in terms of the common sensibilities and insecurities shared by post Forbids youth. She continues: many young whites, facing bleak labor market prospects, were also eager for stories about fast money and authentic belonging to ward off a creeping sense of blamelessness and dispossession. (Quinn 2005:85-86) Thus, raps appeal is as much about class as it is about race. Nor is the resistive view of rap restricted to the North American continent.At least one French study conducted in advance of the riots in the fall of 2005 has noted how French Rap has become the music of choice for young people of visible minority descent who have grown up in the suburban ghettos (Less Cities) of ajar cities. They have been routinely exposed to police harassment on the streets, subjected to prejudice and discrimination at school, and struggled to find decent housing and appropriate Jobs (Boucher 1999, cited in Miranda and Class 2004). The idea that popular music might serve as an important reference point for rebellious or resistive adolescents is not a new one.As we have already noted, this is how a British school of subcultures analysis once interpreted the cultural activity of working-class youth in the United Kingdom (Hall and Jefferson 1976; Hebrides 698 ; social Forces 88(2) 97 9). Some attempt has been made to understand rap fantod in similar terms. Bonnets (AAA) ethnographic study, set in Newcastle, reveals how one group of white rappers translate the racial politics of blacks into the language of class divisions in the United Kingdom. However, for the most part there has been limited application of this kind of analysis to young peoples involvement with rap music.Rap directed against exploitation and disadvantages at school, on the streets, or in the labor market, do so primarily without much input from the young people who make up its listening audience. Because they have not often been canvassed for their views about the music, we do not know to what degree they share in or identify with the message of resistance readily found in content analysis of the rap idiom (Martinez 1997; Nexus 1997; Kern-NSA 2000; Stephens and Wright 2000; Bennett 2001; Sullivan 2003; Kabuki 2005; Quinn 2005; Lena 2006).Thus contemporary rap scholarship follows British subcultures theory in gleaning evidence of resistance from the texts, not the aud ience. Resistance is sought, and found, in the words and music rather than in the activities and ideologies of subcultures or audience members. We can suggest, echoing Alexander (2003) earlier critique of British cultural studies, that the audience for rap music has been theorized rather more thoroughly than it has been investigated. The Present Study The present study is concerned with three key questions: First, is there a relationship between audiences for rap and representations of the music?Second, as compared to other listening audiences, are serious rap fans participants in cultures of crime and resistance? Third, if such a link is found, what are the sources of variation in their participation in these cultures of crime and resistance? The need to address these questions, as we see it, emerges from several limitations in the existing research on rap. These limitations are as follows: First, there is a significant disjuncture between dominant representations of the music as a source of social harms and evidence unambiguously supportive of this proposition.Second, the case for a resistant view of rap music is usually advanced, as we have already intimated, by examination of the designs and intentions of musical creators, both artists and producers, as well as music critics. We do not know whether or not re sistant assuages register and resonate with those who listen to the music. Third, we do not have an accurate gauging of the stereographic composition, particularly racial and ethnic, of the audience for rap music. Raps dominance of the youth market is widely understood as a crossover effect the original black audience now Joined by legions of white fans (Spiller 1996; Houseman 2003).However, purchasing habits the usual arbiter for claims about raps increasing popularity with white consumers may not be an entirely reliable measure of either raps popularity or racial and ethnic orations therein (Kermis 2000; Quinn 2005). The system devised by the recording industry to gauge record Listening to Rap ; 699 sales Nielsen Scandalous does not gather data on the race, or indeed any other personal characteristic, of purchasers. What it does do is categorize sales in terms of whether they were made in retail stores in high-income locations or in allowance locations.Record companies, Journalists or academics then choose to equate those high-income sales with white suburban youth, and low-income sales with inner-city identity of buyers (Kitting 2005). Moreover, it has been argued that sales figures under represent the taste preferences of the poor. (Quinn 2005:83) As Rose (1994) explains it, in the black community, particularly in impoverished neighborhoods, many more rap CDC are listened to than bought a single purchase being passed on from one fan to another. Similarly, homemade tapes and bootleg CDC are often produced and shared within local fan networks.The implications of this point are clear enough: t he appropriation of rap music by suburban white teens might not be as extensive as is commonly supposed. Finally, we do not know whether or how the AP audience relates to the dominant frame of the music as a catalyst for crime and delinquency or to the counter frame of the music as an articulator of social inequity. The mainstreaming of rap may have cost the genre its underground or counter- culture status as protest music, or made it less attractive to delinquent rebels.Rap also may play no part in crime or resistance subcultures because, under post modern conditions, young people have become increasingly eclectic and individualized in their musical tastes; the close relationship between musical tastes and lifestyles, implied by subcultures theory, no longer applies. On this formulation, therefore, we would not expect to find strong connections between a preference for rap music and subcultures of crime and subcultures of resistance. On the other hand, reasons for believing that rap music may be a basis for subcultures lifestyles, at least among black youth, are more compelling.At the time that we were conducting our research there was considerable debate, in the local media and among local politicians, about issues involving race and crime racial profiling and the desirability of collecting race-based crime statistics, for example. Contributing to this debate were findings from another study, confirming what black youths in Canada have always suspected, namely that they are much more likely to be arbitrarily stopped and searched by police officers than are members of other racial and ethnic groups even when their own self-reported deviant activity is statistically controlled for (Worldly and Tanner 2005). In addition, contemporaneous research on the media coverage of race and crime in Toronto newspapers carried out by Worldly (2002), found black people disproportionately portrayed in a narrow range of roles and activities (principally hose involving crime, sports and entertainment) than members of other racial and ethnic groups; and when featured in crime stories, depicted primarily as offenders. Capricious policing and media misrepresentation may therefore contribute to a sense of injustice among black youth, a sense of injustice that has them gravitating to rap as an emblem of cultural resistance. 00 ; social Forces 88(2) Commercial success and artistic validation has not diminished rap musics capacity to provoke moral panic. The music is still seen as threatening, dangerous and socially damaging by many political figures and established authority. Previous research suggests that negative media coverage of the cultural preferences and practices of adolescents often intensifies subcu ltures identifications (Cohen 1973; Fine and Galilean 1979; Thornton 1995). Rap based moral panics may therefore tighten and behaviors.The lack of attention paid to raps consumers renders these questions relatively open ones, the meaning of rap music still to be discovered. Methods Whereas most contemporary research on rap focuses on those who create the music artists and producers, and those who write about it, music critics we pose questions about raps audience. Further, while audience studies usually employ qualitative data-gathering techniques (for example, Morley 1980; Roadway 1984; Shivery 1992), we use the methods of survey research.We are more concerned with how audience members interact with the music than with the issue of cause and effect. We are interested in how music might be used as a resource in their everyday lives (Willis 1990; Adenoma 2000), how it might contribute to identity formation (Roe 1999) and, especially, how audiences might align themselves with (or distance themselves from) cultures of crime and resistance. Nonetheless, in our analyses, we read rap fantod as a dependent variable.While there is considerable academic and public debate about whether music produces or is a product of cultural activities, legal or otherwise, existing research has failed to provide a compelling or consistent rationale for any particular causal logic. As we have seen, the idea that exposure to rap music causes crime is not unequivocally supported in the research literature. Research on resistant youth cultures, by contrast, is much more likely to reverse the relationship and see musical style as a result of subcultures activity (Willis 1978; Hebrides 1979).Hebrides, for example, infers that punk rock in the United Kingdom was a cultural response to the subordination of existing working-class youth groups. Lying (1985) has countered that punk the musical genre existed before punk the subculture. In the absence of agreement about the direction of the relationship between musical taste and cultural practices, our decision to operational rap appreciation as a dependent variable is made more for pragmatic, heuristic reasons than unassailable theoretical ones. Our strategy is to focus on listening preferences rather than purchasing habits.By asking students to report on and evaluate the sic that they like, dislike and in what combinations, we gain a clearer and more detailed picture of where rap is situated in the consumption patterns of groups of students d ifferentiated by, among other factors, their racial identity. Our goals are to: (1 . Distinguish students with a serious, exclusive taste for rap from more casual fans; (2. To calculate the Listening to Rap ; 701 size and racial makeup of rap musics prime audience; and (3. To map relationships between that core audience and resistant and delinquent repertoires.Few surveys of general populations of young people have established any kind of connection teens rap and deviancy, net of other factors. We contend that raps reputation as a corrosive force is validated by that linkage, and that without it that representation becomes more contestable. A similar logic applies to the relationship between rap and social protest. The claim that the music carries a serious message that it is an link between the music and a collective sense of inequity, and weakened by its absence. Data The data for this research are drawn from the Toronto Youth Crime and Factorization Study, a stratified cross-sectional survey of Toronto adolescents carried out from 1998 wrought 2000 (Tanner and Worldly 2002). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 3,393 Toronto students ages 13-18, from 30 Metropolitan Toronto high schools in both the Catholic (10 schools) and larger Public School (20 schools) systems. Within each school, one class from each grade, 9 (ages 13 and 14) through 13 (ages 18 and 19), was randomly selected. The overall response rate was 83 percent (83. 4% for Catholic vs.. 3. 1% for public schools), and is a conservative estimate as it was based on the number of students enrolled in each class rather than those present the day of the study. Informed consent was given for participation in the study. Surveys were completed during class under the supervision of a member of the research team (and without a teacher present) and took approximately 45 minutes to complete. The survey asked young people about a broad range of topics, including family life, educational experiences, leisure activities, delinquent involvement, factorization experiences and so forth.The survey instrument was designed by members of the research team and evolved out of a series of 11 focus groups with adolescents in Toronto schools. The completed survey was reviewed by a rise of institutional ethics boards, including those at the University of Toronto, the Toronto Public School Board and the Catholic School Board. As the survey does not include high school dropouts, institutionalized y outh and street youth, it is a school sample and thus any generalizations speak only to the experiences of school-based adolescents. Our sample is ethnically and racially diverse and is representative of the Metropolitan Toronto high school population. Measures Musical Preferences Guided by Borides work (1984) and Peterson recasting of musical taste in terms of omnivorous and omnivorous patterns (1992), we focus our attention on 702 ; social Forces 88(2) how musical choices are combined: if young people liked (or disliked) one style or genre, what other styles or genres did they like or dislike (what Van Kick 2001 has referred to as combinatorial logic).Indicators of musical taste were derived from the question: How much do you like each of the following types of music? Respondents were then asked to evaluate each of 1 1 contemporary musical genres: Soul, Rhythm and Blues, Jazz, Hip/Hop and Rap, Reggae and Dance Hall, Classical and Opera, Country and New Country, Pop, Alternative (including Punk, Grunge), Heavy Metal (Hard Rock), Ethnic Music (traditional/ cultural), and Techno (Dance).Musical tastes were assesse d on a five-point Liker scale that addresses whether respondents Unlike previous research that dichotomize musical tastes, focusing exclusively on the musical genres most liked (Peterson and Kern 1996) or disliked (Bryon 1996), we target the level of appreciation (or lack of appreciation) each respondent has for a particular musical genre. For space considerations a detailed overview of the clustering procedure has been omitted but is available upon request.We employed a woo-stage cluster analysis (hierarchical agglomerative and k-means) procedure to derive groupings of adolescent musical tastes. Cluster analysis assembles respondents based on their common responses to questions/ measures, and is useful for identifying relatively homogeneous groups, groups that are highly internally homogeneous (members are similar to one another) and highly externally heterogeneous (members are not like members of other clusters) (Aldermen and Falsified 1984). Employing cluster analysis techniques, we uncovered seven musical taste clusters. Table 1 outlines the results of our cluster analysis. The largest group n = 616) was the Club Kids, composed of those who report an above average enjoyment of techno and dance, mainstream pop, and hip-hop and rap. Next were the Urban Music Enthusiasts (n = 605). Members of this group combined a strong appreciation of Rap and Hip Hop with considerable disinterest in most other musical styles. These adolescents are the primary focus of the current study.Then there was a fairly large (n = 482) group of youth, the New Traditionalists, who have an above average liking of classical music and opera, Jazz, soul, R, country music and mainstream pop. The fourth largest (n = 425) group, the Hard Rockers, comprised a sizeable number of heavy metal and hard rock, alternative, punk and grunge fans. Then there was a surprisingly large (n = 384) group of adolescents, the Musical Abstainers, who are only marginally interested in any kind of music.The group we call the Ethnic Secularists (n = 380) were so described because of a dominant preference for a quite wide range of ethnic music, as well as a greater than average liking for soul and R, Jazz, classical music and opera, country music techno and dance, and mainstream pop. The smallest group (n = 338), the Musical Omnivores, was composed of those who have an above average appreciation for all 11 musical unrest.